In July of 1863, Confederate and Union forces fought in Pennsylvania near a small village named Gettysburg. In only three days some 50,000 casualties – both North and South – were tallied, the most during the course of the Civil War. By mid-October, a National Cemetery at Gettysburg began to rebury the dead. David Wills, a committee member overseeing the cemetery project, invited President Abraham Lincoln to (more…)


This article first appeared in History News Network.

Whether one believes Russia successfully hacked the United States presidential election or not is immaterial. There’s just too much incriminating evidence surrounding the hack – both from our own intelligence agencies and numerous journalistic investigations – which indicates Russia did as much and  (more…)

Sometimes Google can overwhelm students. Enter a name, phrase, or event under research into the search engine and Google replies with a staggering number of hits. Students may scroll for a few minutes and then (more…)

I have begun to produce short videos to assist my freshman and sophomore students with some tips on conducting research. My number one go-to place to begin online research is (no need to insert drumroll here, because of its obvious nature): Wikipedia. (more…)

While hunting for primary materials covering early contacts between English-speakers and Native Americans, I stumbled across Encyclopedia Virginia. I was quickly hooked. The design is easy on the eye, and the navigation made simple, especially for a site that offers a tremendous amount of informative data and in a multitude of forms. The only downside to the site is the (more…)

Since returning from London, I’ve been working on an article that covers “prize culture.” That may need a little explaining, and for that I need you, dear reader, to forget what you think is meant by the term “prize.” Travel, instead, back to London in the middle of the (more…)

In my hands were the papers belonging to a seized ship from 1743. The ship was French and was sailing from Martinique to Brest. Close to home, a British man of war named the Captain appeared over the horizon. A few hours later, the French merchant vessel was boarded and the crew surrendered. The commander of the HMS Captain was Captain John Byng, who promptly took Captain Simon Daragorry and the crew of Le Dauphin de France to Portsmouth, in southern England. Le Dauphin de France and its contents would become in the parlance of eighteenth-century naval warfare